You and your team have data that must be protected
No matter your industry, you likely have information somewhere, be it a smartphone or laptop, that is sensitive. Maybe it’s credit card transaction data, perhaps it is client contracts or applications, maybe it’s something as simple as a confidential document shared casually between coworkers.
What happens if one of your employees leaves and takes your entire client list or attempts to cover up mistakes by altering documents? The good news is that all of this can be traced.
To find out how, we talked with Chuck Snipes, a computer forensics examiner at DSi, one of the nation’s leading providers of advanced electronic discovery and digital forensics services. As a former cybercrime detective and consultant in outside investigations and criminal cases, he often serves as a testifying expert witness and has extensive experience in cybercrime investigations, digital evidence and data recovery.
In his own words below, he will explain why not even deleted documents are unrecoverable, how forensic specialists like him find altered data, and how to handle the tricky topic of employees using their own devices at work:
Anything typed can be recovered
Did you know that almost anything you – or your employees – type on a computer or device can be recovered? Sure, you can delete files, but digital forensic experts can retrieve fragments of documents and use them to reassemble the information. Scary, right?
It’s not always a bad thing. For example, sometimes employees take confidential information – such as contact lists, accounting spreadsheets with proprietary formulas or organizational documents – with them to a new job. As a worried business owner, you can rest assured. That information is often retrievable, even if the former employees rename or hide the documents, and it makes for sound evidence in court.
So, what do you need to know to safeguard your company’s data? Let’s take a look.
What ways can data be altered or deleted?
- The most common attempt to get rid of information is to rename a data file or change the file extension (i.e., from .doc to .jpg).
- One can also alter data by compressing the file and password-protecting it, which renders the file almost impossible to access without the password. Key word: almost.
- Those who are more technology-savvy might alter data by embedding text in a string of data or using encryption software.
- Regarding deletion, many think that emptying the recycle bin on their computers permanently discards unwanted data. That’s not actually the case. Even if you run a deletion program, data may be retrieved, especially if your company keeps a log of emails and data at the server level to retain a trail of communications.
How can digital forensic specialists find the altered or deleted data?
- Computer forensic consultants use a combination of sophisticated hardware tools, software programs, training and experience to retrieve and unlock data, including password-protected files.
- Even if users try to overwrite files on a hard drive, some fragments of the file may remain at other locations on the drive. Experts can take apart a forensic image of the drive and identify file fragments to reassemble the information.
- A lot of information is stored in computers, and forensic professionals can usually see what a computer was used for, when it was used, what documents were accessed and when, as well as changes to the metadata (such as the title, subject or authors).
- When a file is deleted, many people think it’s gone forever. It’s not. What’s erased is merely a pointer to the files, which tells the operating system to no longer include that information in file listings that the user sees. The content still exists on the hard drive until it is overwritten. This is also often true for items on mobile devices, like text messages.
- If a wiping program is used, it still can’t account for backup services, so forensic specialists can use software to detect if these wiping programs were installed and/or used. If so, backed up copies of the deleted file can be accessed.
- Even if the device is protected by thumbprint, forensic professionals can often access the corresponding iCloud account through legal process. The account typically has copies of everything.
What steps can you take to prevent employees from taking information with them when they leave your company?
- Create a written agreement that lists the owner(s) of the data and provides guidelines for what data can and cannot be taken by an employee.
- Be selective on who is granted permission to company data – and segregate your data for different levels of access privileges. Keep a detailed log in place that includes who accessed which computer or device, what was done while using the device, when it was done and more.
- Put written security guidelines in place that detail how data is to be stored and transmitted. Don’t forget to include guidelines for portable items that contain data, such as USB devices, laptops and smartphones.
- Create and enforce an information governance (IG) policy, outlining what data to preserve and how to maintain it. Your IG policy should also specify a defensible deletion process for the data you don’t need. Information can’t be stolen or mishandled if you don’t have it, so don’t collect and retain sensitive information that you don’t need.
Can employers collect business information accessed by employees via personal devices, and vice versa?
- Employers have the right to see what is on company devices. Yet, if a company wants to access personal information on company computers, it’s best to consult with an attorney before taking any action. To avoid complications, many businesses implement a policy that states there should be no expectation of privacy for anything accessed via a company-owned device.
- Company information on personal devices can be accessed by the company, too. And many businesses have employed a specific policy for dealing with the Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) phenomenon.
How can companies manage BYOD issues?
- Implement a data ownership policy that fully discloses company procedures and ramifications. For example, implement a policy that all devices must be controllable from within the organization. This grants the employer the right to monitor employees’ activities on the device, and it ensures that, should a device be stolen or an employee terminated, the IT department can remotely lock or wipe the device.
- Allow only devices that will actually be used for company purposes to connect to the corporate network.
- Ensure that all devices granted access to the corporate environment meet established security and policy requirements. For example, companies may require that portable hard drives or flash drives be inspected before leaving the premises to make sure no company data is removed from the building.
Creating and implementing a well-documented strategy for maintaining confidential information and having technological safeguards in place will make it much harder for an employee to steal data. In the event that an employee is able to sneak out data, the right logging and backup systems will enable forensic personnel to prove theft. When used as evidence in court, the proof of a theft may allow for retrieval of the information and sanctions against the person(s) who stole it.
Chuck Snipes outlines above the sensitive nature of data, and highlights just some of the ways experts like him can prove theft. If you suspect a former employee is or has accessed, altered, or taken data, you’ll need to call in the experts. Contact Chuck at DSi to find out how they can strengthen your position and keep your data safe.
Remember that everything typed, saved, altered, transferred, or deleted, isn’t gone forever – forensics experts know how to find it.
Get all your digital organization in one place with Routine
(TECH NEWS) Routine makes note-taking and task-creating a lot easier by merging all your common processes into one productivity tool.
Your inbox can either be your best friend or your worst enemy. Without organization, important emails with tasks, notes, and meetings can become a trash pile pretty quickly. Luckily, there are a lot of tools that aim to help you improve your efficiency, and the latest to add to that list is Routine.
Routine is a productivity app that combines your tasks, notes, and calendar into one easy-to-use app so you can increase your performance. Instead of having to switch between different apps to jot down important information, create to-do lists, and glance at your calendar, Routine marries them all into one cool productivity tool. By simply using a keyboard shortcut, you can do all these things.
If you receive an email that contains an actionable item, you can convert that email into a task you can view later. Tasks are all saved in your inbox, and you can even schedule a task for a specific day. So, if Obi-Wan wants to have Jedi lessons on Thursday, you can schedule your Force task for that day. Likewise, chat messages that need follow-up can also be converted into tasks and be scheduled.
To enrich your tasks, notes can be attached to them. In your notes, you can also embed checkboxes, which are tasks of their own. And if you have tasks that aren’t coming from your inbox, you can import them from other services, such as Gmail, Notion, and Trello.
To make sure you can stay focused on the events and tasks at hand, Routine makes it easy to take everything in. By using the tool’s keyboard-controlled console, you can access your dashboard to quickly see what tasks need to be addressed, what’s on your calendar, and even join an upcoming Zoom session and take notes about the meeting.
Routine is available for macOS, iOS, web, and Google accounts only. Overall, the app centralizes notes and tasks by letting you create and view everything in one place, which helps make sure you stay on top of things. Currently, Routine is still in beta, but you can get on a waitlist to test the product out for yourself.
The paradox of CAPTCHAs: Too smart for humans vs AI?
(TECH NEWS) AI is catching up to our cybersecurity technology and often tricking humans too — so what’s next for CAPTCHAs and the internet?
We’ve all encountered it before: The occasional robot test that feels impossible to beat. If you’ve felt like these tests, also known as CAPTCHAs, have gotten harder in the last couple of years, you aren’t wrong—and the reason is as ironic as it is baffling.
Simply put, AI are just as good as—and often better than—humans at completing CAPTCHAs in their classic format. As machine learning and AI become more advanced, the fundamental human attributes that make consistent CAPTCHA formats possible become less impactful, raising the question of how to determine the difference between AI and humans in the future.
The biggest barrier to universal CAPTCHA doctrine is purely cultural. Humans may share experiences across the board, but such experiences are typically basic enough to fall victim to the same machine learning which has rendered lower-level CAPTCHAs moot. Adding a cultural component to CAPTCHAs could prevent AI from bypassing them, but it also might prevent some humans from understanding the objective.
Therein lies the root of the CAPTCHA paradox. Humans are far more diverse than any one test can possibly account for, and what they do have in common is also shared by—you guessed it—AI. To create a truly AI-proof test would be to alienate a notable portion of human users by virtue of lived experience. The irony is palpable, but one can only imagine the sheer frustration developers are going through in attempting to address this problem.
But all isn’t lost. While litmus tests such as determining the number of traffic cones in a plaza or checking off squares with bicycles (but not unicycles, you fool) may be beatable by machines, some experts posit that “human entropy” is almost impossible to mimic—and, thus, a viable solution to the CAPTCHA paradox.
“A real human being doesn’t have very good control over their own motor functions, and so they can’t move the mouse the same way more than once over multiple interactions,” says Shuman Ghosemajumder, a former click fraud expert from Google. While AI could attempt to feign this same level of “entropy”, the odds of a successful attempt appear low.
Move over, Clubhouse: Slack adds their own audio chat rooms
(TECH NEWS) Slack planning to co-opt Clubhouse’s synchronous audio rooms has lead to mixed response. Did it really need to be done?
Slack is adding a synchronous audio chat room feature similar to what Clubhouse already has. While not everyone is happy about it, the addition is true to Slack’s ongoing form—if a little redundant.
Slack’s audio rooms would work similarly to Clubhouse’s current feature of the same persuasion. The rooms themselves would be ongoing for as long as they were open, and users would be able to drop in and out of calls at their leisure, even joining the conversation when permitted by the host or settings. In theory, it’s a cool way to round out Slack’s platform and make for yet another way for people to engage during the work day.
But not everyone is stoked about the addition. Pocketnow’s Nadeem Sarwar makes a strong point about the redundancy of adding a Clubhouse feature to the already-packed Slack deck: “…from a regular remote worker’s perspective, I’d rather use services such as Telegram, Discord, or Google Meet that we’ve grown accustomed to using for jumping into a group call with my teammates.”
“…[T]he need for audio chatrooms to get in a chaotic chat with colleagues, with whom you already chat over work and share memes five days a week, doesn’t make much sense,” he adds.
Sarwar also references research about remote meeting fatigue from Stanford and The Washington Post, positing that—since video conferences are already played out at this point—adding another quasi-conference option to Slack doesn’t serve much of a purpose.
He isn’t wrong. There are multitudinous conference options on the market now, many of which are free. One could argue that Slack, having marketed itself as a text-first communication hub, has no business entering the audio chat landscape.
That argument falls on its face when you consider Slack’s model—something both Sawar and the Slack CEO himself mention—involves “stealing” and implementing “good ideas” from others in order to make their own platform as comprehensive as possible. If one is able to use Slack for the majority of tasks that Google, Discord, and Clubhouse offer, that makes the platform a lot more attractive to users who are on the fence.
And, perhaps more importantly, it ensures that current users won’t migrate to a comparable platform in the future—especially if their colleagues are making the same choice.
It’s a smart move for Slack, especially given Clubhouse’s lack of Android support at this time—something Clubhouse has said probably still won’t launch for a couple of months.
The Clubhouse team, for their part, continues to add new features in efforts to maintain the platform’s upward mobility. One such feature is the option for paid subscriptions to content creators, allowing for people to monetize their presence on the platform. At the time of this writing, Clubhouse is valued at around $1 billion.
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