So, Saudi Arabia granted a robot citizenship. That’s not the topic at hand, somehow. That’s just a thing that happened, because 2018 has every intention of one-upping 2017 in the “we all live in a SNL sketch parodying Black Mirror” surrealism sweepstakes.
The topic at hand is this: What happens if somebody hacks her?
When my boss dropped that question on Facebook, and I had to stop and stare at it for awhile. Geek hypotheticals are extremely my shizz, but seriously. There are layers on layers to that one.
Happily, some smart people are already unpacking the layers.
1. Does citizenship = Personhood?
“Corporations have personhood in US. Is it ethical to hack them?” – Tim Kaupas
“There are white-hat hackers that are hired to review the security system of companies, some of which hacked into the system before they were given a fully supervised opportunity.” – Cheska Lesaca
Tim’s point and Cheska’s reply highlight a complicated point of law. “Corporate personhood” is the controversial legal doctrine that corporations enjoy some of the same rights as individual citizens. It’s a big idea that has been at the heart of a lot of recent – and very contentious – law, including 2010’s Citizens United vs. FEC, which protected corporate political donations as a form of free speech, and 2014’s Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores Inc., which permitted corporations to make hiring and firing decisions on religious lines under the First Amendment.
To state the obvious, the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution doesn’t say anything about corporations having the right to free anything. To state the even more obvious, it says nothing whatsoever about Saudi Arabia.
To state the less obvious, corporate personhood isn’t the same as personhood, period. It isn’t a legal absolute. It’s a heading, a way of characterizing a bunch of American law that defines the parameters of what corporations can and can’t do.
Also, as Cheska points out, corporations don’t act like people most of the time. When a hacker hacks a corporation, half the time they hire other hackers to deal with security! If you’ve ever found someone in a ski mask going through your undies, I’m going to guess you didn’t offer them a job.
So which is Sophia? A person, with rights to respect and personal autonomy worthy of zealous defense? Or a corporate resource a curious person can poke through the workings of without serious ethical or legal harm?
2. Is it alive?
“Gotta back up. No robot should have citizenship. Dogs are conscious, rats are conscious, birds are conscious, none of them have citizenship. A robot shouldn’t have citizenship. Answering the question validates an absurd position.” – Matthew Hager
Citizenship is special. It makes assumptions of citizens that Sophia, technically spiffy as she is, doesn’t seem capable of fulfilling.
Sophia herself, by way of her pleasant, only slightly-Stepford website, says she “can animate all kinds of human expressions,” but is “only starting to learn about the emotions behind those expressions.” That would seem to be a drawback in someone who wants to interact with the state.
That’s Matthew’s point, and it’s well-taken. Sophia is a machine. She does what she’s scripted to do. She lacks even the self-determination of an animal, and animals aren’t citizens.
That said, you’re not allowed to rewrite the brain of an animal, either. Citizen or otherwise, basic ethics requires a level of respect for the autonomy of other beings. So what constitutes “being?” Is there a point at which a self-optimizing algorithm is close enough to thought that it’s worthy of respect?
3. Getting real
“Nope. It’s hexual assault.” – John Steinmetz
OK, that’s a really niche joke. See, hexadecimal numbering is used in computer programming to… you know what? Don’t worry about it. If you don’t know what it is, just accept it’s a silly nerd joke and move on.
Less funny? Sophia is a Saudi citizen. Per the UN, there are roughly 15 million women and girls who are Saudi citizens. As of 2011, they even get to vote! As long as they have a male guardian’s permission, that is. Same deal if they want to travel. Or get jobs. Or go to school. Or open a bank account.
Point being, as previously mentioned, I love nerdy hypotheticals, and like any good ex-Catholic schoolboy, I’m thoroughly enthused at the chance to debate complex ethical questions. But “hypothetical” is exactly what Sophia is. She’s a charming publicity stunt, a marketing move by Hanson Robotics. Fair enough.
But when it comes to Saudi citizenship, I could give a damn about Sophia the pretty robot. The ethical questions to be answered are anything but hypothetical.
This story was originally featured on February 06, 2018.
Further – the hybrid B2B and B2C startup providing all-in-one learning
(TECHNOLOGY) The Further app “filters” the web to find new skills for a daily dose of badge-earning learning. Consider it your personal learning library!
There are a ton of resources dedicated to online learning, but the Further app “filters” the web to find new skills for a daily dose of badge-earning learning. Consider it your personal learning library in the palm of your hand. The Further app works to create a continuous learning experience for all, including students, employees, and trainees in a variety of industries.
“We grant intelligent access to high-quality educational content for everyone.”
Educational environments, such as schools and universities, can benefit from weaving in informal learning, increasing engagement. Consultants can use Further to increase their personal knowledge, but also provide professional knowledge to their clients. Safety and health training manuals can be completed in the app for manufacturing, food and beverage, healthcare, retail, and more. Lastly, software and tech employees can keep ahead of the trends by using the Further app.
How it works: Users can choose and collect content from multiple online sources to support their personal or professional skills. The app allows users to automate learning between family, friends, coworkers, and more through groups. Lastly, users are provided with reports to track their learning progress and are given rewards for completing items. Further uses AI to provide personalization through its own learning algorithm – the more it knows the user – the higher quality of educational suggestions it gives related to their goals.
In addition to the above, the Further app implements specific features to create a seamless learning experience. The app comes with a curated dashboard with feed customization, optimized for the users’ specific needs. The content center is bursting with resources that allows you to be in command of your education. In-app and push notifications can be enabled for reminders to complete tasks or grant access to updated trends in the news. And as with any great digital product startup, the Further app allows users to give feedback based on their experiences – you can submit ideas or future requests at their public Trello board (pretty cool if you ask me).
How psychologists are using VR to profile your personality
(TECH NEWS) VR isn’t just for gamers. Psychologists are using it to research how people emotionally respond to threats. But does it come at the cost of privacy?
When you put on a VR headset for the first time, most people have that ‘whoa’ moment. You’ve entered an enchanting otherworldly place that seems real, but you know it isn’t. You slowly tilt your head up to see a nicely lit blue sky. You turn your head around to see mountains and trees that weren’t there before. And, you finally look down to stare at your hands. Replaced by bright-colored gloves, you flex your hands to form a fist, then jazz hands, and back.
Playing VR games is exciting and interesting for a lot of gamers, and you would (or maybe wouldn’t) be surprised to know that psychologists think so, too. According to The Conversation, psychologists have started researching how people emotionally respond to potential threats using VR.
Do you think this is weird or cool? I’ll let the following help you decide.
In earlier studies, psychologists tested “human approach-avoidance behavior”. By mixing real and virtual world elements, they “observed participants’ anxiety on a behavioral, physiological, and subjective level.” Through their research, they found that anxiety could be measured, and “VR provokes strong feelings of fear and anxiety”.
For the study, 34 participants were recruited to assess how people have a “tendency to respond strongly to negative stimuli.” Using a room-scaled virtual environment, participants were asked to walk across a grid of translucent ice blocks suspended 200 meters above the ground. Participants wore head-mounted VR displays and used handheld controllers.
Also, sensors placed on the participants’ feet would allow them to interact with the ice blocks in 2 ways. By using one foot, they could test the block and decide if they wanted to step on it. This tested risk assessment. By using both feet, the participants would commit to standing on that block. This tested the risk decision.
The study used 3 types of ice blocks. Solid blocks could support the participant’s weight and would not change in appearance. Crack blocks could also support the participant’s weight, but interacting with it would change its color. Lastly, Fall blocks would behave like Crack blocks, but would shatter completely when stepped on with 2 feet. And, it would lead to a “virtual fall”.
After looking at the data, researchers found out that by increasing how likely an ice block would disintegrate, the “threat” for the participant also increased. And, of course, participants’ behavior was more calculated as more cracks appeared along the way. As a result, participants opted to test more blocks before stepping on the next block completely.
They found that data about a person’s personality trait could also be determined. Before the study, each participant completed a personality questionnaire. Based on the questionnaire and the participants’ behavior displayed in the study researchers were able to profile personality.
During the study, their main focus was neuroticism. And, neuroticism is one of the five major personality traits used to profile people. In other words, someone’s personality could now also be profiled in a virtual world.
So, it all comes down to data and privacy. And yes, this isn’t anything new. Data collection through VR has been a concern for a long while. Starting this month, Facebook is requiring all new Oculus VR owners to link their Facebook account to the hardware. Existing users will be grandfathered in until 2023.
All in all, VR in the medical field isn’t new, and it has come a long way. The question is whether the risk of our personality privacy is worth the cost.
Amazon backtracks on hybrid return-to-work plan, allows work from home
(TECHNOLOGY) Amazon retracts its original statement proposing a hybrid work schedule and is now open to allowing employees to work from home indefinitely.
Let’s face it, companies can’t make up their mind regarding remote work. One week it’s this, the next week it’s that. Somehow, even though they have been running smoothly while working from home in the midst of the pandemic, employees are now suddenly considered to be “twiddling their thumbs.”
Following in the footsteps of other FAANG companies, in March 2021, Amazon said that their “plan is to return to an office-centric culture as our baseline. We believe it enables us to invest, collaborate, and learn together most effectively.”
What a stark contrast from the newest proposition: “At a company of our size, there is no one-size-fits-all approach for how every team works best” said Jassy, the now CEO of Amazon.
Contradictory, but admirable! Before this most recent announcement, Amazon was going to require all corporate works to adhere to a hybrid schedule of 3 days in office, unless otherwise specified. The hybrid work plan was set to begin in September 2021.
Now, the decision falls into the individual team’s hands and employees will be evaluated based on performance, despite where they choose to work. However, the underlying preference is to be located at least within reasonable distance to their core team’s office in order to come in on short notice.
“The company expects most teams will need a few weeks to develop and communicate their respective plans.”
Once plans are more finalized, Amazon will share specific details prior to January 3rd, 2022 – the date they initially planned for everyone to return to the office. Even though they may be a little indecisive, compared to Facebook, Apple, and Google, they’re actually being more flexible.
Finger snaps for the king of two-day shipping.
Now you have an excuse to pop open Amazon.com on a new private tab, while working from home, and buy a little something to celebrate. Seems counterintuitive to what we’re trying to prove here, but it’s necessary. Treat yo’self!
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